GROUP 1 – 1954 BUICK LUBRICARE AND BEARING SERVICE
1-1 EVERY 1000 MILES-CHASSIS AND BODY
1954 Buick Chassis Lubricare
- Check engine oil level only after engine has been stopped for at least three to five minutes to allow oil to drain down.
The oil level should be maintained between the “FULL” and “ADD” marks on gauge rod; the space between marks represents 2 quarts. It is best to maintain the oil level within one quart of the “FULL” mark. Do not fill above the “FULL” mark. See figure 1-3.
See paragraph 1-7 for engine oil recommendations and when to change oil.
- Front suspension, Brake, Clutch and Transmission Controls. Wipe dirt from lubrication fittings, then apply a good grade of water resistant chassis lubricant, under pressure, at the following points (fig. 1-1):
- Lower Control Arms, inner and outer ends
- Support Upper Pivot Pins
- Steering Knuckle Bushings
- Tie Rod Ends, Intermediate Rod, and Idler
- Arm Support Bushing.
- Clutch Release Equalizer
- Brake Pedal, lower end at push rod clevis. Brake and Clutch Pedal Shaft
- Clutch Pedal Linkage Pins, lubricate with engine oil.
- Cranking Motor (Starter). Apply a few drops of engine oil to the solenoid link pin and to the bearing between shift lever and stud. See figure 1-2. Do not oil Solenoid plunger.
- Oil Filter. Change original oil filter element at first 1000 miles. See instructions in paragraph 1-2.
- Synchromesh Transmission. Check oil level, after allowing time for oil to settle. Clean the surrounding area before removing filler plug. Level should be maintained at filler plug opening by adding Multi-Purpose Gear Lubricant (MIL-0-2105). Use SAE 90 for temperatures not lower than 10°F. below zero; for temperatures continuously lower than -10°F use SAE 80. NOTE: Draining and flushing transmission is not necessary at any time unless like lubricant has become contaminated.
- Rear Axle. Check oil level, after allowing time for oil to settle. Clean the surrounding area before removing filler plug, then remove plug slowly to vent pressure if present. Level should be maintained at filler plug opening by adding SAE 90 Multi-Purpose Gear Lubricant (MIL-0-2105). NOTE: Draining and flushing is not necessary at any time unless the lubricant has been removed to perform repairs. When complete refilling is required use only Factory Hypoid Lubricant as specified in paragraph 1-8.
- Dynaflow Transmission. Check transmission oil level, with transmission oil warm, transmission in Parking, and engine idling. Remove gauge rod located under right side of hood (fig. 1-3), wipe dry with clean cloth then reinstall to full depth. Remove rod and note oil level.
If oil level is more than one inch below the “FULL” mark on gauge rod, add oil specified in paragraph 1-4 but do not fill above the “FULL” mark. Distance between the “FULL” and “ADD OIL” mark is one inch and represents approximately one pint.
- Fill oil cup with SAE 10W engine oil.
- Air Cleaner. Normally serviced every 5000 miles. If car is operating in dusty territory, however, check condition of air cleaner and clean it if dirty. See instructions in paragraph 1-2.
- Generator: Fan Belt. Add 8 to 10 drops of 10W engine oil to oiler at drive (pulley) end of generator and fill rear oiler to the cap. Wipe off excess or spilled oil. Never lubricate the commutator and do not lubricate generator while it is operating.
If oil reserve in commutator end bearing is exhausted due to failure to lubricate at proper intervals, the rear oil cup should be filled 3 times, allowing time for each filling to soak down.
Inspect fan belt for cracks and for proper tension. See figure 2-37.
- Check coolant level when engine is cold and add water to line marked “Filling Level-Cold” stamped on rear side of head tank. See figure 1-4.
CAUTION: Radiator cap should not be removed when engine is hot because relieving the pressure may cause the cooling system to boil, with resultant loss of water or anti-freeze solution. Filling radiator when hot, or filling above level line may result in loss of water or anti-freeze solution through overflow pipe.
- Add distilled water to bring level to split ring at bottom of filler well. See figure 1-5. WARNING: Do not overfill. Clean top of battery; if wet with acid, neutralize with soda and wash clean.
- Manifold Valve Shaft. Place a few drops of graphited kerosene on shaft at each end and rotate shaft to work lubricant into bearings. See figure 1-6. If shaft is frozen, free up by tapping ends of shaft lightly with hammer.
- Steering Gear. Turn front wheels to full left position. Clean adjacent area, then remove gear housing filler plug, or filler plug and vent on a power steering gear. Add lubricant only as required to bring level to bottom of filler opening, using Multi-Purpose Gear Lubricant as specified for synchromesh transmissions (step 5). Do not use pressure to fill housing because lubricant may be forced up into steering column of standard gear, or into hydraulic system of a power steering gear. Seasonal or periodic change of lubricant is unnecessary.
- Throttle Control Linkage. Place a few drops of engine oil at connections. If the accelerator equalizer shaft squeaks in the support brackets, work Lubriplate or chassis lubricant into the bearings and wipe off excess lubricant.
- Brake Master Cylinder (or Power Brake Reservoir). On manual brake jobs, remove access hole cover under front floor mat on left side. On power brake jobs, reservoir is under hood on left side.
Thoroughly clean filler cap nut before removal to avoid getting dirt into reservoir. Add fluid as required to bring level to 1/2″ to 1″ below top of filler opening. Use G.M. or Delco Super No. 11 Hydraulic Brake Fluid. Never use reclaimed fluid or any mineral oil.
- Inflate all tires according to tire temperatures, as follows:
- 24 lbs. Starting Pressure-after car has been standing for 3 hours or driven less than one mile. In temperatures below freezing, inflate tires 2 lbs. higher.
- 26 lbs. City Pressure-after car has been driven 3 miles or more BELOW 40 MPH.
- 28 lbs. Highway Pressure-after car has been driven 3 miles ABOVE 40 MPH. WARNING: It is impossible to inflate tires correctly when HOT. Pressure normally increases as tires heat up when driving. Do not deflate tires to offset this increase in pressure.
1954 Buick Body Lubricare
- Hood Fastener Mechanism. Lightly coat lock lever and dovetail bolt with Lubriplate. Apply engine oil to hood hinge pins.
- Door Locks and Strikers. Heavy bodied lubricants tend to gum up and hinder free movement of the lift bolt type locks. Referring to figure 1-7, use only SAE 10 engine oil at (1) roller and bolt (2) edges of bolt slot (3) guide channels in striker ( 4) surface of bumper. Apply light film, wipe off surplus.
On rotary type lock, apply a few drop of engine oil at inner end of roller.
- Door Checks and Hinges. On Series 40, 60, apply Lubriplate or chassis lubricant to hold-open springs in front door hinges. Use same lubricant sparingly on hooked ends of rear door check links. On Series 50-70 apply light engine oil to check link pins. No lubricant required on hinge pins.
- Dome Lamp Switches. Coat end of switch plunger and contact point on door with G.M. Door-Ease Lubricant.
- Glove Box Door. Apply a few drops of 10W engine oil to door hinge pins and wipe off surplus. Sparingly coat lock striker with G.M. Door-Ease Lubricant.
- Windshield Wiper Cables. Wipe a few drops of light engine oil on cables where they pass over tensioner pulleys. CAUTION: Windshield wiper blades must not be rotated by hand for any reason as this places an undue strain on cable fastenings.
- Rear Compartment Lid Lock. Lightly coat lock latch and striker with Lubriplate or chassis lubricant.
- Gas Tank Filler Door. Apply a few drops of 10W engine oil or penetrating oil to hinge pins. Wipe off excess oil to prevent accumulation of dirt.
- Lock Cylinders. If key operates roughly in any lock cylinder blow powdered graphite into key slot. DO NOT USE OIL.
- Rubber Parts. Rubber parts such as door weatherstrips and cowl ledge lacing do not require Lubricare unless they are causing squeaks. If Lubricare becomes necessary, sparingly apply DC4 Compound, made by Dow-Corning Corp., Midland, Michigan.
1-2 EVERY 5000 MILES-CHASSIS
- Oil Filter. Change original filter at first 1000 miles, the second element at first 5000 miles, then change element at each 5000 mile interval thereafter.
Loosen the container bolt and allow oil to drain out. Remove container, element, old gasket. See figure 1-8.
Wash and dry container and make sure that gasket surfaces are clean. Install new type G-270 gasket in undercut in filter base; then install new AC Type PF-122 element and old container, tightening bolt securely. Check for oil leaks after engine has run for 5 minutes.
- Apply a few drops of 10W engine oil to felt wick in top of cam under the rotor. Put one drop of 10W oil on breaker arm pivot. Work a small amount of M-1172 ball bearing grease (available through U.M.S.) into a clean cloth, then hold cloth against distributor cam while it is rotating. CAUTION: Excessive grease may throw off into contact points when hot. Petroleum jelly is not suitable for temperature reached by distributor cam.
- Air Cleaner and Oil Filler Cap. Every 5000 miles (more often under dusty operating conditions) remove the air cleaner element and the oil filler cap and wash the filtering elements in a non-inflammable solvent. DO NOT USE KEROSENE. Allow elements to drain until dry. Do not use air blast on filtering element.
Wash and dry the air cleaner reservoir then fill to point marked “OIL LEVEL,” using one pint of SAE 50 engine oil. See figure 1-9. Do not oil the cleaner element because oil will drain down into reservoir and over-fill it.
Make sure that gasket at center of cleaner element is in good condition before parts are installed. Wipe all oil from outer surface of air cleaner and filler cap.
- Pump Operating Countershaft-Carter Carburetor Only. On the 2-barrel carburetor, remove dust cover screws, apply several drops of engine oil in screw holes and install screws. On the 4-barrel carburetor, remove dust cover and apply oil in two oil holes above countershaft. See figure 1-10.
- Horn Cable Connector. Pull out plunger of horn cable connector on steering column jacket and apply a small amount of Lubriplate at point shown in figure 1-11. Work plunger in and out to work lubricant in between plunger and the bakelite insulator.
- Power Steering Gear. Thoroughly clean dirt from reservoir on top of oil pump then remove cover. Add oil specified for Dynaflow Drive (par. 1-4) as required to bring oil level to mark in reservoir. Make certain that gasket is good before installing reservoir cover. See figure 1-12.
1 -3 EVERY 10,000 MILES-CHASSIS
- Front Wheel Bearings. Inspect, repack, and adjust front wheel bearings as described in paragraph 6-14.
Inspect Brake Linings and Drums while front wheels are off. If linings are thin or drums are beginning to score, the car owner should be notified.
- Shock Absorbers-Rear. Check fluid level as specified in paragraph 7-15.
1-4 EVERY 25,000 MILES-DYNAFLOW TRANSMISSION
At 25,000 mile intervals the transmission should be completely drained, the oil pan and screen should be removed and cleaned, and the transmission should be refilled with fresh oil. Transmission MUST NOT BE FLUSHED when oil is changed.
Approved Oils for Dynaflow Transmission
The following oils are approved for Dynaflow Drive and no other fluid should be used.
- Special Buick Oil for Dynaflow Drive, available through Buick Parts Warehouses under Group 4.101.
- Automatic Transmission Fluid, Type A, available through petroleum suppliers. This fluid must have an AQ-ATF number embossed in lid of the can for identification.
Draining and Refilling Dynaflow Transmission
- Warm up transmission, then remove bell housing cover.
- Loosen one converter drain plug, through opening in flywheel, then turn flywheel until opposite drain plug is straight down and remove this plug to allow converter to drain completely. See figure 1-13.
- Remove drain plug and allow oil pan to drain completely. Do not remove accumulator caps. See figure 1-16.
- Remove oil pan and oil screen, clean thoroughly, and reinstall. Install and tighten all drain plugs, then install bell housing cover.
- Put 3 quarts of specified oil (subpar. a.) in transmission. With engine idling and transmission in Parking (P) complete the refilling to bring oil level to 1 3/4,” below “FULL” mark on gauge rod. When transmission oil is warmed up, the oil level should then be at “FULL” mark on gauge rod.
A transmission refill requires approximately 10 quarts total. A completely dry transmission requires an additional 1 3/4, pints.
1-5 ONCE A YEAR-HYDRO-LECTRIC POWER SYSTEM
NOTE: Applies to Model 100 only. Periodic replacement of fluid not required in jobs having motor and pump mounted in trunk compartment.
- Each Fall all windows should be lowered, the seat moved back and the reservoir on the power unit removed, cleaned out with alcohol and then refilled with G. M. or Delco Super No. 11 Brake Fluid. See figure 1-14.
CAUTION: Before installing reservoir, make certain that reservoir gasket is in good condition and properly installed. When reservoir is installed make certain that it makes full co tact with gasket all around. Any leakage of dirt or water into reservoir will cause serious damage in Hydro-Lectric System.
- Each Spring the folding top power cylinder piston rods should be lubricated with a few drops of castor oil or brake fluid. Do not use mineral oil.
1-6 1954 BUICK LUBRICARE-AS REQUIRED
1954 Buick Clutch Internal Lubricare
Lubrication of internal working parts of the clutch is usually required only at time clutch is assembled and installed; however, if lubrication becomes necessary to eliminate squeaks or correct excessive pedal pressure, follow instructions given in paragraph 4-4.
1954 Buick Brake Lubricare
Lubrication of all metal contact points at wheel brake assemblies is normally performed during the major brake adjustment or may be performed whenever a brake drum is removed.
Lubrication of parking brake cables is also performed during the major brake adjustment; however, operation under conditions where mud and water are frequently encountered may require more frequent lubrication. See paragraph 9-9.
1954 Buick Rear Wheel Bearing Lubricare
Rear wheel bearings need not be lubricated more often than 20,000 miles. Whenever rear brakes are relined, or axle shafts are removed for other work, it is advisable to inspect rear wheel bearings and oil seals. Replace seals if leaking or worn. Fill rear wheel bearings and space between oil seals with wheel bearing lubricant, allowing some expansion space-do not pack full. Coat leather edges of seals with lubricant before installation of axle shaft.
1954 Buick Speedometer Cable Lubricare
The speedometer cable is factory lubricated with special all-season grease and normally requires no further service unless it becomes noisy. In extremely hot climates or where considerable dirt and water are encountered, however, it may be necessary to lubricate the cable at intervals of approximately 20,000 miles or every two years. See paragraph 10-58.
1954 Buick Sunshade Lubricare
If the sunshade rod turns hard in the support as sunshade is moved up and down, remove retainer screw, pull rod from support and apply G. M. Door-Ease Lubricant. Do not use oil, which may soil body trim. Install rod in support and adjust retainer screw to proper tension.
Roof Side Rail Sealing Strip
The mechanical (“flipper”) type sealing strips mounted on the roof side rails above the doors on some models should be lubricated occasionally to insure proper operation and minimum wear.
- Open the door and apply a coat of Lubriplate No. 107 or No. 110 to entire length of hinge indicated in figure 1-15. Wipe off any excess. Do not apply this lubricant to the awning gasket.
- Close the door and apply a thin coat of “DC-4” Silicone Compound or “DC-7” Silicone Emulsion to both sides along length of the awning gasket indicated in figure 1-15. Wipe off excess compound to avoid accumulation of dust.
- Open the door and operate the sealing strip by hand 10 or 15 times to work lubricants into the hinge.
1-7 1954 BUICK ENGINE OIL RECOMMENDATIONS
Choice of Engine Oil for 1954 Buicks
- Brand of Oil. In the selection of the proper brand of oil it is essential to consider the reputation of the refiner or marketer. It is imperative that the same brand of oil be used at all times.
- Type of Oil. There are several types of oil manufactured for use in internal combustion engines. For use in the Buick engine we recommend that an oil marked “For Service MS” (formerly called heavy duty oil) be used for maximum protection under all driving conditions. If Service MS oils are not available, those marked “For Service MM” (formerly called premium oil) may be used. Oils marked “For Service ML” (formerly called regular oil) are not recommended for any Buick engine.
- Grade or Viscosity. The grade or viscosity (SAE number) of engine oil should be selected for the lowest anticipated temperature at which cold engine starting will be required as follows:
Temperature – SAE Grade
Not lower than 32° F.: 20-W
Not lower than minus 10° F.: 10-W
Below minus 10° F.: *5-W
* If 5-W is not available use 10-W plus 10% kerosene.
- Break-in Oils. Break-in oils or compounds are not necessary in Buick engines and their use is not recommended. Some of these break-in oils contain certain materials which may be harmful. Buick HD Concentrate (subpar. d) is not a break-in oil.
When to Change Engine Oil
The crankcase should be completely drained and refilled with new oil of proper viscosity at the end of the first 1,000 miles and every 2,000 to 3,000 miles thereafter. Adverse driving conditions may require more frequent draining and refilling. Adverse driving conditions are those which may cause early contamination of engine oil, such as operation under unusual dust conditions or short runs with a cold engine in very cold weather.
The color of “Service MS” type oil does not indicate its condition since it normally becomes dark (black or gray) after only a few hundred miles of driving. This is because the detergent content envelopes and holds in suspension extremely fine but harmless soot (soft carbon) and lead particles. The oil filter element does not remove this harmless material but it does remove all harmful particles such as road dust, metal chips and hard carbon.
Flushing the crankcase with oils or solutions other than a good grade of 10-W engine oil is not recommended. When flushing to remove contamination appears advisable, use 3 quarts 10-W oil (4 quarts if filter is drained) and idle the engine at 1000 RPM (equivalent to 20 MPH) until the oil is hot, then drain crankcase and oil filter immediately after stopping engine. Fill crankcase with correct quantity and seasonal grade of oil.
Use of Buick HD Concentrate
Buick HD Concentrate, available through Buick Parts Department under Group 1.850 is a compound of the materials used by oil refiners to manufacture high detergency motor oils. It is intended for use in engines operating under aggravated conditions where engine deposits, rust and corrosion cannot be adequately retarded by motor oils readily available to the average motorist. It is especially recommended for engines operated under restricted conditions such as frequent stops, short trips and slow speeds where such symptoms as sticking valves, valve lifters and rings are noticed.
Although HD Concentrate may be used continually it is normally unnecessary to use it with every crankcase refill. When used, the instructions on the container should be carefully observed.
1-8 1954 BUICK REAR AXLE LUBRICANT RECOMMENDATIONS
1954 Buick Lubricant Recommendations
Buick rear axles are filled at the factory with a special hypoid gear lubricant. It is not necessary to drain the original lubricant at any time except when it has become contaminated, or when draining is required for inspection of parts or for repairs.
Under no circumstances should the factory lubricant be drained from the rear axle to be replaced with any other type of lubricant.
In all cases of complete refilling of rear axle only Factory Hypoid Gear Lubricant is recommended. This is the same lubricant (lead soap-active sulphur type) as furnished with Buick replacement ring and pinion gear sets, and it may be obtained from any Buick Parts Warehouse under Group 5.535.
When adding lubricant to bring it to proper level Factory Hypoid Gear Lubricant is preferred; however, SAE 90 Multi-Purpose Gear Lubricant (MIL-0-2105) may be used.
Draining, Flushing and Refilling Rear Axle
If rear axle lubricant has become contaminated, the rear axle should be drained, flushed, and refilled with new lubricant as follows:
- With rear axle jacked up so that wheels are clear of the floor, clean bottom of body, rear end of chassis and the rear axle housing to remove loose dirt which might get into rear axle when housing cover is removed. DO NOT TAKE CHANCES ON GETTING ABRASIVE SUBSTANCES INTO AXLE HOUSING OR BEARINGS.
- Drain rear axle housing by removing lower cover bolts, then remove cover.
- Thoroughly flush rear axle housing with SAE-10-W engine oil or flushing oil. Do not use water, steam, gasoline, kerosene, alcohol or other cleaning fluids for flushing.
Use a clean suction gun to flush all parts with clean oil, working a flow of oil through all bearings and working parts. Do not recirculate oil, but allow it to drain out as used.
- Wipe out axle housing with clean, lint free cloths. Install cover using a new gasket and coating threads of bolts with Permatex or thread sealer to avoid oil leaks. Install a new gasket on filler plug and tighten plug firmly.
- Refill rear axle housing to filler plug opening with Factory Hypoid Gear Lubricant (Group 5.535).
SECTION 1-B 1954 BUICK BEARING SERVICE (BALL AND ROLLER)
The instructions in this Section cover removal, installation, cleaning and inspection of all ball and roller bearings used in the various units of the vehicle. These instructions must be carefully followed to avoid failure of bearings after any repair work in which they are involved.
1-9 REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION OF 1954 BUICK BEARINGS
Absolute cleanliness is essential in the handling of all units in which ball or roller bearings are installed. Before any such unit is opened for inspection or removal of parts, all loose dirt should be washed off the exterior to avoid getting abrasive substances into the bearings. Removed bearings must be handled so as to avoid contamination. Immediately after removal of bearings wrap them in dry, clean paper until they can be washed, lubricated, and inspected as to fitness for further service. Be sure wrapped bearings are well lubricated to prevent rusting.
During the installation the housing and all interior parts, as well as the tools used for assembly, must be kept absolutely clean. If a partially assembled unit is to be left standing for any time, or overnight, cover it with clean clothes or paper to exclude dust.
Bearings are frequently damaged so that they fail to give satisfactory service due to improper methods used in removal and installation. Proper tools must be used during removal and installation to avoid damage to bearings and adjacent parts. When special tools are not available, an arbor press should be used, wherever it is adaptable, to apply pressure and avoid shock.
Never hammer on a bearing as the hardened steel may chip or crack. Use of a hammer and drift is bad practice. The drift may slip and damage the separator or shield and there is always the danger of cocking the bearing or cracking the tight fitted race. If a hammer and drift must be used, the drift must be of soft material, such as brass, and properly shaped to assure good bearing against the tight fitted race. A clean piece or tubing of proper diameter to bear all around the race is preferable to a solid drift.
Application of Pressure
Bearings may be seriously damaged by improperly applied pressure during removal or installation.
Bearings should be pressed on or off and not driven, as the shock produced by driving may cause cracking, chipping, denting or brinelling of the hardened surfaces. Always apply the pressure against the particular race which is a tight fit on or in the part to which bearing is assembled, so that the pressure is not transmitted through the balls or rollers. Never press or drive on the loose race.
Never apply full force against a bearing until assured that the bearing is started straight. Forcing a cocked bearing distorts the tight fitted race and may cause it to crack; furthermore, the extremely hard race is likely to distort, burr, or score the bearing seat of adjacent part. The same rule applies when removing the bearing.
1-10 CLEANING, INSPECTION, CARE OF 1954 BUICK BEARINGS
The condition and serviceability of ball and roller bearings that have been in service cannot be judged until they are thoroughly cleaned, lubricated, and inspected. Very few bearings removed in service work are entirely free from dirt or other foreign substances. In a majority of cases there is enough dirt present to affect the “feel” of the bearings and give the impression that they are rough or noisy. This is particularly noticeable in the double row ball bearings due to their initial preload.
Never spin ball or roller bearings, especially not with an air hose. Considerable damage can be done if a bearing is spun at high speed; furthermore, this is a useless procedure since the condition of a bearing cannot be determined by spinning, even at low speed.
Cleaning 1954 Buick Bearings
Bearings having seals or shields on both sides should never be washed since the lubricant may be diluted or washed out. Wipe exterior dirt from such bearings with a clean cloth.
Bearings (not sealed on both sides) should be thoroughly washed in clean gasoline or kerosene which has not been used for other parts. It may be necessary to soak very dirty bearings in the cleaning fluid for some time, to soften hardened dirt and lubricant so it can be washed out. When soaking or washing bearings, use care not to contact bottom of container and thereby pick up any dirt that may have settled.
String a bearing on a wire and slosh it up and down in cleaning fluid to wash out old lubricant and dirt. Do not string several bearings on wire as the lower bearing may become contaminated with dirt or metal particles washed from upper bearings. A bearing having a shield on one side only should be strung with shielded side up to permit dirt to drop out readily. After sloshing on the wire, the bearing should be rotated and sloshed in cleaning fluid by hand to complete the removal of all foreign substances.
After washing, blow out bearings with clean, dry air. Let air run a while before turning it into bearings, to eliminate line dirt and moisture. Direct the air stream squarely into the open side or face of bearing while holding the inner race and slowly rotating the outer race by hand. Continue until all loose dirt is removed. The air stream must not be directed so as to spin the bearing while cleaning, because a very high speed can be attained and considerable scratching and scoring will be done before the dirt is blown out.
After the bearing is thoroughly cleaned, oil bearing with clean new engine oil, rotating the bearing by hand to distribute the lubricant to all surfaces. If bearing is not to be inspected immediately, wrap it in clean, oiled paper to protect it from dirt and dust.
Inspection of 1954 Buick Bearings
Bearings rotated by hand for internal inspection should be under enough axial pressure to bring balls or rollers firmly into contact with race-ways. In case of single row angular contact bearings, pressure must always be applied on the thrust faces of races.
Single row radial bearings normally have a certain amount of looseness or end play which is easily felt when dismounted. Single row angular contact bearings are very loose when dismounted and this greater looseness must not be mistaken for wear. Double row angular contact bearings are preloaded or made to minus end play and therefore should have no end play that can be distinguished by hand feel.
Carefully inspect bearings in a good light, discarding bearings which show any of the following defects:
- Worn or cracked race. On bearings such as front wheel or differential, observe the track made on raceway by the balls or rolls. If track is far out of the center of raceway, excessive wear or improper adjustment is indicated.
Check for cracked race. Forcing a cocked bearing on or off a shaft, or too heavy a press fit, will crack a bearing race.
- Rusted balls, rollers, or raceways. Usually caused by water passing worn or defective seals or by condensation inside housing.
- Worn, galled, or abraded surfaces. Can be caused by too loose fit or adjustment, or bearing locked by dirt and turning on shaft or in housing.
- Broken or bent shields, seals, or separator. Usually caused by improper use of tools during installation or removal.
- Badly .discolored balls, rollers, or races. Usually due to inadequate supply of lubricant or improper type of lubricant. NOTE: Moderate discoloration of bearing parts is not cause for discard.
- Flat spots on rollers. Usually caused by improper fit or wrong lubricant.
- Extreme roughness. Roughness following thorough cleaning and oiling indicates damage to raceways, balls or rollers such as indenting by dirt or metal particles, or pitting by corrosion. Very slight roughness from light indentations seldom affects the bearing life and is no cause for discarding bearing. Extremely rough bearings will be noisy in operation and may soon fail in service, therefore they should be discarded.
- Rough or “catchy” feeling is at one or more points. A rough or “catchy” feeling at one or more points as bearing is rotated indicates spalled or chipped spots due to fatigue or shock. Thorough flushing is necessary to make certain this condition is not caused by dirt or metal particles.
- Excessive looseness or end play. Excessive looseness or end play is caused by lapping of bearing parts by abrasive material in the lubricant. Races and balls or rollers are dull gray when lapped by abrasive material. Any looseness or end play in a double row bearing which can be detected by hand feel is cause for discarding bearing. Excessive looseness in a single row radial ball bearing is cause for rejection; if in doubt, check against feel of identical new bearing. Angular contact ball or roller bearings usually can be adjusted during installation to take care of a reasonable amount of wear due to lapping action of abrasive material in lubricant; however, an excessively worn bearing should be discarded.
Care of Cleaned and New Bearings
Avoid handling bearings more than absolutely necessary. Even when coated with oil, a bearing can become rusted in a comparatively short time by contact with the salty moisture deposited by the fingers.
Do not lay bearings down on a bench where dirt and metal particles are liable to get into them. Keep bearings separated from other parts to avoid damage and contamination with foreign substances.
Cleaned Bearings. Bearings that are satisfactory for further use after cleaning and inspection must be carefully protected to avoid damage or contamination with dust or other abrasive substances.
Immediately after inspection, thoroughly oil bearings to prevent rust and place • them in a clean, covered container or wrap them in clean oiled paper until ready for installation. Dry paper, if used for wrapping, will absorb oil from bearing and promote rust.
New Bearings. Store new bearings in a place that can be kept reasonably clean and not subject to extremes of heat or moisture which would promote rusting or deterioration of bearing lubricants. In order to minimize possibility or rusting or lubricant aging in storage, always use the oldest bearings in stock first.
Keep bearings sealed in original containers don’t open containers and handle bearings. Handling promotes rust from salty moisture deposited by fingers, even when bearing is oiled. Do not remove new bearings from their wrappers until ready to install. Do not clean out grease in which bearings are packed; it is important to leave this untouched.